Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Hospitalized Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Analysis.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 May 08;:
Authors: Guerrero Vinsard D, Wakefield D, Vaziri H, Karagozian R
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) entails a higher risk of infections, including those that could be prevented with immunizations. Current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and American College of Gastroenterology vaccine recommendations for patients with IBD are based on low levels of evidence.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based descriptive cohort study using the US National Inpatient Sample ICD-9 codes from 2012 to 2015. We measured the frequency of patients with IBD who were admitted to the hospital with a vaccine-preventable disease (VPD). Frequencies and demographics were determined and compared between patients with IBD and patients without IBD.
RESULTS: Of discharges, 596,485 (2.08%) were secondary to a VPD, and 7180 (1.2%) were found to have both a VPD and IBD (including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis). The most common VPDs among patients with IBD were herpes zoster virus (HZV) (34.9%) and hepatitis B virus (31.6%), followed by influenza (22.1%). Pneumococcal pneumonia (9.1%) and hepatitis A virus (2.4%) were less common. Inpatients with IBD were twice as likely to have HZV when compared to non-IBD inpatients (odds ratios [OR] = 2.30 [95% CI, 2.06-2.58], P < 0.0001) This finding was consistent for every study year. Pneumococcal pneumonia [OR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.52-0.74), P < 0.0001] and influenza [OR = 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.81), P < 0.0001] were significantly lower in the IBD population. There was no difference for other VPDs.
CONCLUSIONS: HZV was the most frequent VPD in IBD inpatients. Patients with IBD have a higher rate of hospital admissions with HZV and a lower rate of pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza admissions when compared with non-IBD patients. For other VPDs, patients with IBD have the same rate of admission as the general population.
PMID: 31067308 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]