Upper gastrointestinal tract involvement of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: A pathological review.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Apr 28;25(16):1928-1935
Authors: Abuquteish D, Putra J
Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract involvement of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is commonly seen in pediatric patients. Upper endoscopy is included in the routine workup of children with suspected IBD to enhance the diagnosis and management of these patients. Currently, childhood IBD is classified into ulcerative colitis (UC), atypical UC, Crohn’s disease (CD) and IBD unclassified. Histologic confirmation of UGI tract involvement, in particular the presence of epithelioid (non-caseating) granulomas, is helpful in confirming the diagnosis of IBD and its classification. Herein, we reviewed selected IBD-associated UGI tract manifestations in children. Lymphocytic esophagitis, seen predominantly in CD, is histologically characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (> 20 in one high-power field) in a background of mucosal injury with absence of granulocytes. Focally enhanced gastritis is a form of gastric inflammation in pediatric IBD marked by a focal lymphohistiocytic pit inflammation with or without granulocytes and plasma cells in a relatively normal background gastric mucosa. Duodenal inflammation seen in children with IBD includes cryptitis, villous flattening, increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, and lamina propria eosinophilia. Finally, epithelioid granulomas not associated with ruptured gland/crypt are a diagnostic feature of CD. The clinicopathologic correlation and differential diagnosis of each microscopic finding are discussed. Clinicians and pathologists should be cognizant of the utility and limitations of these histologic features.
PMID: 31086461 [PubMed – in process]