The Microbial Composition of Bacteroidetes Species in Ulcerative Colitis Is Effectively Improved by Combination Therapy With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Antibiotics.

The Microbial Composition of Bacteroidetes Species in Ulcerative Colitis Is Effectively Improved by Combination Therapy With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Antibiotics.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Aug 14;:

Authors: Ishikawa D, Sasaki T, Takahashi M, Kuwahara-Arai K, Haga K, Ito S, Okahara K, Nakajima A, Shibuya T, Osada T, Hiramatsu K, Watanabe S, Nagahara A

Abstract
Background: We previously reported that fresh fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) after triple-antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole [AFM]; A-FMT) synergistically contributed to the recovery of phylum Bacteroidetes composition associated with the endoscopic severity and treatment efficacy of ulcerative colitis (UC). Here, we performed further microbial analyses using a higher-resolution method to identify the key bacterial species in UC and determine whether viable Bacteroidetes species from donor feces were successfully colonized by A-FMT.
Methods: The taxonomic composition of Bacteroidetes in 25 healthy donors and 27 UC patients at baseline was compared at the species level using a heat-shock protein (hsp) 60-based microbiome method. Microbiota alterations before and after treatment of UC patients were also analyzed in 24 cases (n = 17 A-FMT; n = 3 mono-AFM; n = 4 mono-FMT).
Results: We found species-level dysbiosis within the phylum Bacteroidetes in UC samples, which was associated with reduced species diversity, resulting from hyperproliferation and hypoproliferation of particular species. Moreover, in responders treated with A-FMT, diversity was significantly recovered at 4 weeks after a fresh round of FMT, after which high degrees of similarity in Bacteroidetes species composition among recipients and donors were observed.
Conclusions: A-FMT alleviated intestinal dysbiosis, which is caused by the loss of Bacteroidetes species diversity in patients with UC. Eradication of dysbiotic indigenous Bacteroidetes species by AFM pretreatment might promote the colonization of viable Bacteroidetes cells, thereby improving the intestinal microbiota dysbiosis induced by UC. Our findings serve as a basis for further investigations into the mechanisms of FMT.

PMID: 30124831 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

PubMed Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30124831?dopt=Abstract