Sarcopenia and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Jun 07;:
Authors: Ryan E, McNicholas D, Creavin B, Kelly ME, Walsh T, Beddy D
Background: Sarcopenia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in oncologic and transplant surgery. It has a high incidence in chronic inflammatory states including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The validity of existing data in IBD and of sarcopenia’s correlation with surgical outcomes is limited.
Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the correlation of sarcopenia with the requirement for surgery and surgical outcomes in patients with IBD. Observational studies of patients with IBD in whom an assessment of sarcopenic status/skeletal muscle index was undertaken, a proportion of whom proceeded to surgical management, were selected.
Results: A total of 5 studies with a combined 658 IBD patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority (70%) had a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. Median (range) body mass index and skeletal muscle index were reported in 4 studies and were 16.58 (13.66-22.50) kg/m2 and 44.52 (42.90-50.64) cm2/m2, respectively. Forty-two percent of IBD patients had sarcopenia. Notably, none of the studies assessed both the anatomical and functional component required for a correct assessment of sarcopenia. Three studies noted that sarcopenic IBD patients had a higher probability of requiring surgery. The rate of major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥IIIa) was significantly higher in patients with sarcopenia. Improved perioperative nutrition management may mitigate the risk of complications.
Conclusion: Many IBD patients are young, may be malnourished, and commonly require emergent surgery. There is considerable heterogeneity in the assessment of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is common in the IBD population and can predict the need for surgical intervention. Sarcopenia correlates with an increased rate of major postoperative complications. Improved perioperative intervention may diminish this risk. A formal assessment, screening by a dedicated IBD dietician, and preoperative physical therapy may facilitate early intervention.
PMID: 29889230 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]