Nested case-control study on risk factors for opportunistic infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

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Nested case-control study on risk factors for opportunistic infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

World J Gastroenterol. 2019 May 14;25(18):2240-2250

Authors: Gong SS, Fan YH, Han QQ, Lv B, Xu Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND: When opportunistic infections occur, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly display a significantly increased rate of morbidity and mortality. With increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and biological agents, opportunistic infections are becoming a hot topic in the perspective of drug safety in IBD patients. Despite the well-established role of opportunistic infections in the prognosis of IBD patients, there are few epidemiological data investigating the incidence of opportunis-tic infections in IBD patients in China. Besides, the risk factors for opportunistic infection in Chinese IBD patients remain unclear.
AIM: To predict the incidence of opportunistic infections related to IBD in China, and explore the risk factors for opportunistic infections.
METHODS: A single-center, prospective study of IBD patients was conducted. The patients were followed for up to 12 mo to calculate the incidence of infections. For each infected IBD patient, two non-infected IBD patients were selected as controls. A conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between putative risk factors and opportunistic infections, which are represented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: Seventy (28.11%) out of 249 IBD patients developed opportunistic infections. Clostridium difficile infections and respiratory syncytial virus infections were found in 24 and 16 patients, respectively. In a univariate analysis, factors such as the severity of IBD, use of an immunosuppressant or immunosuppressants, high levels of fecal calprotectin, and C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate were individually related to a significantly increased risk of opportunistic infection. Multivariate analysis indicated that the use of any immunosuppressant yielded an OR of 3.247 (95%CI: 1.128-9.341), whereas the use of any two immunosuppressants yielded an OR of 6.457 (95%CI: 1.726-24.152) for opportunistic infection. Interestingly, when immunosuppressants were used in combination with infliximab (IFX) or 5-aminosalicylic acid, a significantly increased risk of opportunistic infection was also observed. The relative risk of opportunistic infection was greatest in IBD patients with severe disease activity (OR = 9.090; 95%CI: 1.532-53.941, relative to the remission stage). However, the use of IFX alone did not increase the risk of opportunistic infection.
CONCLUSION: Factors such as severe IBD, elevated levels of fecal calprotectin, and the use of immunosuppressive medications, especially when used in combination, are major risk factors for opportunistic infections in IBD patients. The use of IFX alone does not increase the risk of opportunistic infection.

PMID: 31143074 [PubMed – in process]

PubMed Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31143074?dopt=Abstract