Mucosal 5-aminosalicylic acid concentration, drug formulation and mucosal microbiome in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Mar 20;:
Authors: Olaisen M, Spigset O, Flatberg A, Granlund AVB, Brede WR, Albrektsen G, Røyset ES, Gilde B, Sandvik AK, Martinsen TC, Fossmark R
BACKGROUND: 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the first-line therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC). 5-ASA acts locally in the colonic mucosa by numerous proposed mechanisms, and is metabolised by N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Large variations in mucosal 5-ASA concentrations have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood.
AIMS: To study the relationship between 5-ASA concentration, 5-ASA formulation, NAT genotype and bacterial microbiome in patients with UC.
METHODS: Patients with quiescent UC, using monotherapy of Mezavant (n = 18), Asacol (n = 14) or Pentasa (n = 10), 4.0-4.8 g/day were included. 5-ASA was measured in colonic mucosal biopsies and serum by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. NAT genotypes were determined by Sanger sequencing. Bacterial microbiome was sequenced from faeces and mucosa by 16S rRNA sequencing using Illumina Miseq.
RESULTS: Mezavant provided the highest mucosal 5-ASA levels (geometric mean 2.39 ng/mg), followed by Asacol (1.60 ng/mg, 33% lower, P = 0.50) and Pentasa (0.57 ng/mg, 76% lower, P = 0.033). Mucosal 5-ASA concentration was not associated with NAT genotype, but serum 5-ASA concentration and NAT1 genotype was associated (P = 0.044). Mucosal 5-ASA concentration was positively associated with mucosal bacterial diversity (P = 0.0005) and bacterial composition. High mucosal 5-ASA concentration was related to reduced abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Proteobacteria, and increased abundance of several favourable bacteria such as Faecalibacterium.
CONCLUSIONS: Mucosal 5-ASA concentration is positively associated with bacterial diversity and a mucosal bacterial composition that are perceived favourable in UC. Mezavant yielded higher mucosal 5-ASA concentrations than Pentasa. 5-ASA may have beneficial effects on the mucosal microbiome, and high concentrations possibly amend dysbiosis in UC.
PMID: 30895635 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]