Increased prevalence of anti-TNF therapy in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease is associated with a decline in surgical resections during childhood.

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Increased prevalence of anti-TNF therapy in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease is associated with a decline in surgical resections during childhood.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Jan 09;:

Authors: Ashton JJ, Borca F, Mossotto E, Coelho T, Batra A, Afzal NA, Phan HTT, Stanton M, Ennis S, Beattie RM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) therapy use has risen in paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD). Whether this has translated into preventing/delaying childhood surgery is uncertain. The Wessex PIBD cohort was analysed for trends in anti-TNF-therapy and surgery.
DESIGN: All patients diagnosed with PIBD within Wessex from 1997 to 2017 were assessed. The prevalence of anti-TNF-therapy and yearly surgery rates (resection and perianal) during childhood (<18 years) were analysed (Pearson’s correlation, multivariate regression, Fisher’s exact).
RESULTS: Eight-hundred-and-twenty-five children were included (498 Crohn’s disease, 272 ulcerative colitis, 55 IBD-unclassified), mean age at diagnosis 13.6 years (1.6-17.6), 39.6% female. The prevalence of anti-TNF-treated patients increased from 5.1% to 27.1% (2007-2017), P = 0.0001. Surgical resection-rate fell (7.1%-1.5%, P = 0.001), driven by a decrease in Crohn’s disease resections (8.9%-2.3%, P = 0.001). Perianal surgery and ulcerative colitis resection-rates were unchanged. Time from diagnosis to resection increased (1.6-2.8 years, P = 0.028) but mean age at resection was unchanged. Patients undergoing resections during childhood were diagnosed at a younger age in the most recent 5 years (2007-2011 = 13.1 years, 2013-2017 = 11.9 years, P = 0.014). Resection-rate in anti-TNF-therapy treated (16.1%) or untreated (12.2%) was no different (P = 0.25). Patients started on anti-TNF-therapy <3 years post-diagnosis (11.6%) vs later (28.6%) had a reduction in resections, P = 0.047. Anti-TNF-therapy prevalence was the only significant predictor of resection-rate using multivariate regression (P = 0.011).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anti-TNF-therapy increased significantly, alongside a decrease in surgical resection-rate. Patients diagnosed at younger ages still underwent surgery during childhood. Anti-TNF-therapy may reduce the need for surgical intervention in childhood, thereby influencing the natural history of PIBD.

PMID: 30628109 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

PubMed Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30628109?dopt=Abstract