Human Gut Microbiome Transplantation in Ileitis Prone Mice: A Tool for the Functional Characterization of the Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Human Gut Microbiome Transplantation in Ileitis Prone Mice: A Tool for the Functional Characterization of the Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 Nov 21;:

Authors: Basson AR, Gomez-Nguyen A, Menghini P, Buttó LF, Di Martino L, Aladyshkina N, Osme A, Lasalla A, Fischer D, Ezeji JC, Erkkila HL, Brennan CJ, Lam M, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong digestive disease characterized by periods of severe inflammation and remission. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a variable effect on ileitis severity from human gut microbiota isolated from IBD donors in remission and that of healthy controls in a mouse model of IBD.
METHODS: We conducted a series of single-donor intensive and nonintensive fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments using feces from IBD patients in remission and healthy non-IBD controls (N = 9 donors) in a mouse model of Crohn’s disease (CD)-like ileitis that develops ileitis in germ-free (GF) conditions (SAMP1/YitFC; N = 96 mice).
RESULTS: Engraftment studies demonstrated that the microbiome of IBD in remission could have variable effects on the ileum of CD-prone mice (pro-inflammatory, nonmodulatory, or anti-inflammatory), depending on the human donor. Fecal microbiota transplantation achieved a 95% ± 0.03 genus-level engraftment of human gut taxa in mice, as confirmed at the operational taxonomic unit level. In most donors, microbiome colonization abundance patterns remained consistent over 60 days. Microbiome-based metabolic predictions of GF mice with Crohn’s or ileitic-mouse donor microbiota indicate that chronic amino/fatty acid (valine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine; linoleic; P < 1e-15) alterations (and not bacterial virulence markers; P > 0.37) precede severe ileitis in mice, supporting their potential use as predictors/biomarkers in human CD.
CONCLUSION: The gut microbiome of IBD remission patients is not necessarily innocuous. Characterizing the inflammatory potential of each microbiota in IBD patients using mice may help identify the patients’ best anti-inflammatory fecal sample for future use as an anti-inflammatory microbial autograft during disease flare-ups.

PMID: 31750921 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

PubMed Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31750921?dopt=Abstract