A JAK1 Selective Kinase Inhibitor and Tofacitinib Affect Macrophage Activation and Function.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 Jan 19;:
Authors: De Vries LCS, Duarte JM, De Krijger M, Welting O, Van Hamersveld PHP, Van Leeuwen-Hilbers FWM, Moerland PD, Jongejan A, D’Haens GR, De Jonge WJ, Wildenberg ME
Background: Janus kinases (JAKs) mediate cytokine signaling involved in inflammatory bowel disease. The pan-JAK inhibitor tofacitinib has shown efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. However, concerns regarding adverse events due to their wide spectrum inhibition fueled efforts to develop selective JAK inhibitors. Given the crucial role of myeloid cells in intestinal immune homeostasis, we evaluated the effect of pan-JAK and selective JAK inhibitors on pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization and function (M1/M2) and in experimental colitis.
Methods: Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages or human monocytes were treated using JAK1 and JAK3 selective inhibitors (JAK1i;JAK3i) and tofacitinib and were evaluated by transcriptional, functional, and metabolic analyses. In vivo, oral administration of JAK1i and tofacitinib (10 or 30 mg/kg) was tested in both acute and acute rescue dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis.
Results: Both tofacitinib and JAK1i but not JAK3i effectively inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation and interferon gamma-induced transcripts in M1 polarized macrophages. Strikingly, transcriptional profiling suggested a switch from M1 to M2 type macrophages, which was supported by increased protein expression of M2-associated markers. In addition, both inhibitors enhanced oxidative phosphorylation rates. In vivo, JAK1i and tofacitinib did not protect mice from acute DSS-induced colitis but ameliorated recovery from weight loss and disease activity during acute rescue DSS-induced colitis at the highest dose.
Conclusion: JAK1i and tofacitinib but not JAK3i induce phenotypical and functional characteristics of anti-inflammatory macrophages, suggesting JAK1 as the main effector pathway for tofacitinib in these cells. In vivo, JAK1i and tofacitinib modestly affect acute rescue DSS-induced colitis.
PMID: 30668755 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]