Supplementary Anal Imaging by Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Not Suspected of Having Perianal Fistulas.

Supplementary Anal Imaging by Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Not Suspected of Having Perianal Fistulas.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jul 25;:

Authors: Kim PH, Park SH, Jin K, Ye BD, Yoon YS, Lee JS, Kim HJ, Kim AY, Yu CS, Yang SK

Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few data are available to guide the use of anal imaging for patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who are not suspected of having perianal fistulas. We aimed to evaluate the role of anal imaging supplementary to magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) in these patients.
METHODS: In a prospective study, we added a round of anal MR imaging (MRI), collecting axial images alone, to MRE evaluation of 451 consecutive adults who were diagnosed with or suspected of having CD but not believed to have perianal fistulas. Images were examined for perianal tracts; if present, colorectal surgeons reexamined patients to identify external openings or perianal inflammation or abscess. Patients were followed and data were collected on dedicated treatment for perianal fistulas or abscess. We calculated the diagnostic yield for anal MRI, associated factors, and outcomes of MRI-detected asymptomatic perianal tracts.
RESULTS: A total of 440 patients (mean age, 29.6±8.9 years) met the inclusion criteria. Anal MRI revealed perianal tracts in 53 patients (12%; 95% CI, 9.3%-15.4%). Surgeons however did not identify any lesions that required treatment. The asymptomatic tracts were mostly single unbranched (83%), inter-sphincteric (72%), or had a linear dark signal at the tract margin (79%). Younger age at MRE, female sex, and CD activity index scores of 220-450 were independently associated with detection of perianal tracts. MRI detection of asymptomatic tracts was independently associated with later development of perianal fistulas or abscess that required treatment: 17.8% cumulative incidence at 37 months and an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.06 (95% CI, 1.01-9.27; P=.048).
CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of patients with CD, we found that adding anal MRI evaluation to MRE resulted in early identification of patients at risk for perianal complications.

PMID: 31352093 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

PubMed Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31352093?dopt=Abstract