Innate lymphoid cells support regulatory T cells in the intestine through interleukin-2.

Related Articles Innate lymphoid cells support regulatory T cells in the intestine through interleukin-2. Nature. 2019 Apr 03;: Authors: Zhou L, Chu C, Teng F, Bessman NJ, Goc J, Santosa EK, Putzel GG, Kabata H, Kelsen JR, Baldassano RN, Shah MA, Sockolow RE, Vivier E, Eberl G, Smith KA, Sonnenberg GF Abstract Interleukin (IL)-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is necessary to prevent chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract1-4. The protective effects of IL-2 involve the generation, maintenance and function of regulatory T (Treg) cells4-8, and the use of low…

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Colonic epithelial cell diversity in health and inflammatory bowel disease.

Related Articles Colonic epithelial cell diversity in health and inflammatory bowel disease. Nature. 2019 Feb 27;: Authors: Parikh K, Antanaviciute A, Fawkner-Corbett D, Jagielowicz M, Aulicino A, Lagerholm C, Davis S, Kinchen J, Chen HH, Alham NK, Ashley N, Johnson E, Hublitz P, Bao L, Lukomska J, Andev RS, Björklund E, Kessler BM, Fischer R, Goldin R, Koohy H, Simmons A Abstract The colonic epithelium facilitates host-microorganism interactions to control mucosal immunity, coordinate nutrient recycling and form a mucus barrier. Breakdown of the epithelial barrier underpins inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).…

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c-MAF-dependent regulatory T cells mediate immunological tolerance to a gut pathobiont.

c-MAF-dependent regulatory T cells mediate immunological tolerance to a gut pathobiont. Nature. 2018 Feb 07;: Authors: Xu M, Pokrovskii M, Ding Y, Yi R, Au C, Harrison OJ, Galan C, Belkaid Y, Bonneau R, Littman DR Abstract Both microbial and host genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. There is accumulating evidence that microbial species that potentiate chronic inflammation, as in inflammatory bowel disease, often also colonize healthy individuals. These microorganisms, including the Helicobacter species, can induce pathogenic T cells and are collectively referred to as pathobionts. However,…

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Structure of the complement C5a receptor bound to the extra-helical antagonist NDT9513727.

Structure of the complement C5a receptor bound to the extra-helical antagonist NDT9513727. Nature. 2018 Jan 03;553(7686):111-114 Authors: Robertson N, Rappas M, Doré AS, Brown J, Bottegoni G, Koglin M, Cansfield J, Jazayeri A, Cooke RM, Marshall FH Abstract The complement system is a crucial component of the host response to infection and tissue damage. Activation of the complement cascade generates anaphylatoxins including C5a and C3a. C5a exerts a pro-inflammatory effect via the G-protein-coupled receptor C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1 (C5aR1, also known as CD88) that is expressed on cells of…

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Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution.

Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution. Nature. 2017 Jun 28;: Authors: Huang H, Fang M, Jostins L, Umićević Mirkov M, Boucher G, Anderson CA, Andersen V, Cleynen I, Cortes A, Crins F, D’Amato M, Deffontaine V, Dmitrieva J, Docampo E, Elansary M, Farh KK, Franke A, Gori AS, Goyette P, Halfvarson J, Haritunians T, Knight J, Lawrance IC, Lees CW, Louis E, Mariman R, Meuwissen T, Mni M, Momozawa Y, Parkes M, Spain SL, Théâtre E, Trynka G, Satsangi J, van Sommeren S, Vermeire S, Xavier RJ, International…

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Intracellular allosteric antagonism of the CCR9 receptor.

Intracellular allosteric antagonism of the CCR9 receptor. Nature. 2016 Dec 07;: Authors: Oswald C, Rappas M, Kean J, Doré AS, Errey JC, Bennett K, Deflorian F, Christopher JA, Jazayeri A, Mason JS, Congreve M, Cooke RM, Marshall FH Abstract Chemokines and their G-protein-coupled receptors play a diverse role in immune defence by controlling the migration, activation and survival of immune cells. They are also involved in viral entry, tumour growth and metastasis and hence are important drug targets in a wide range of diseases. Despite very significant efforts by the…

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Different tissue phagocytes sample apoptotic cells to direct distinct homeostasis programs.

Related Articles Different tissue phagocytes sample apoptotic cells to direct distinct homeostasis programs. Nature. 2016 Nov 09;: Authors: Cummings RJ, Barbet G, Bongers G, Hartmann BM, Gettler K, Muniz L, Furtado GC, Cho J, Lira SA, Blander JM Abstract Recognition and removal of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes, including dendritic cells and macrophages, preserves immune self-tolerance and prevents chronic inflammation and autoimmune pathologies. The diverse array of phagocytes that reside within different tissues, combined with the necessarily prompt nature of apoptotic cell clearance, makes it difficult to study this process…

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Dietary-fat-induced taurocholic acid promotes pathobiont expansion and colitis in Il10-/- mice.

Related Articles Dietary-fat-induced taurocholic acid promotes pathobiont expansion and colitis in Il10-/- mice. Nature. 2012 Jul 5;487(7405):104-8 Authors: Devkota S, Wang Y, Musch MW, Leone V, Fehlner-Peach H, Nadimpalli A, Antonopoulos DA, Jabri B, Chang EB Abstract The composite human microbiome of Western populations has probably changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial…

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