Suppressive and Gut Reparative Functions of Human Type 1 T-regulatory Cells.

Suppressive and Gut Reparative Functions of Human Type 1 T-regulatory Cells. Gastroenterology. 2019 Sep 09;: Authors: Cook L, Stahl M, Han X, Nazli A, MacDonald KN, Wong MQ, Tsai K, Dizzell S, Jacobson K, Bressler B, Kaushic C, Vallance BA, Steiner TS, Levings MK Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: T-regulatory (Treg) cells suppress the immune response to maintain homeostasis. There are 2 main subsets of Treg cells: FOXP3-positive Treg cells, which do not produce high levels of effector cytokines, and type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells, which are FOXP3-negative and secrete interleukin…

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Efficacy and Safety of Mirikizumab in a Randomized Phase 2 Study of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

Efficacy and Safety of Mirikizumab in a Randomized Phase 2 Study of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology. 2019 Sep 04;: Authors: Sandborn WJ, Ferrante M, Bhandari BR, Berliba E, Feagan BG, Hibi T, Tuttle JL, Klekotka P, Friedrich S, Durante M, Morgan-Cox M, Laskowski J, Schmitz J, D’Haens GR Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin 23 (IL23) contributes to pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the effects of mirikizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the p19 subunit of IL23, in a phase 2 study of patients with UC. METHODS: We performed…

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Histopathology Scoring Systems of Stenosis Associated With Small Bowel Crohn’s Disease: A Systematic Review.

Related Articles Histopathology Scoring Systems of Stenosis Associated With Small Bowel Crohn’s Disease: A Systematic Review. Gastroenterology. 2019 Aug 30;: Authors: Gordon IO, Bettenworth D, Bokemeyer A, Srivastava A, Rosty C, Hertogh GE, Robert ME, Valasek MA, Mao R, Kurada S, Harpaz N, Borralho P, Pai RK, Pai RK, Odze R, Feakins R, Parker CE, Nguyen T, Jairath V, Baker ME, Bruining DH, Fletcher JG, Feagan BG, Rieder F, Stenosis Therapy and Anti-Fibrotic Research (STAR) Consortium Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Stenosis is a common complication of Crohn’s disease (CD) that…

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Efficacy and Safety of Vedolizumab Subcutaneous Formulation in a Randomized Trial of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

Efficacy and Safety of Vedolizumab Subcutaneous Formulation in a Randomized Trial of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology. 2019 Aug 27;: Authors: Sandborn WJ, Baert F, Danese S, Krznarić Ž, Kobayashi T, Yao X, Chen J, Rosario M, Bhatia S, Kisfalvi K, D’Haens G, Vermeire S Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maintenance treatment with vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the gut-selective α4β7 integrin, is administered intravenously. Some patients might prefer a subcutaneous formulation of vedolizumab for maintenance treatment. Vedolizumab SC was investigated as maintenance treatment in patients with moderately to severely…

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Inflammation-induced Occludin Downregulation Limits Epithelial Apoptosis by Suppressing Caspase 3 Expression.

Inflammation-induced Occludin Downregulation Limits Epithelial Apoptosis by Suppressing Caspase 3 Expression. Gastroenterology. 2019 Aug 08;: Authors: Kuo WT, Shen L, Zuo L, Shashikanth N, Ong MLDM, Wu L, Zha J, Edelblum KL, Wang Y, Wang Y, Nilsen SP, Turner JR Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epithelial tight junctions are compromised in patients with gastrointestinal disease. Occludin is a protein component of tight junctions; its removal from tight junctions or reduced expression results in barrier loss. Knockout (KO) of occludin in mice, however, does not appear to affect intestinal in tight junction…

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AGA Technical Review on the Evaluation of Functional Diarrhea and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults.

AGA Technical Review on the Evaluation of Functional Diarrhea and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults. Gastroenterology. 2019 Jul 25;: Authors: Carrasco-Labra A, Lytvyn L, Falck-Ytter Y, Surawicz CM, Chey WD Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: The evaluation of patients with chronic watery diarrhea represents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians because organic causes, including inflammatory bowel disease, microscopic colitis, and chronic infection, must be differentiated from functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the usefulness of diagnostic tests in…

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