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Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Differences Between Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

Related Articles Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Differences Between Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 May 18;: Authors: Lazaridis LD, Pistiki A, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Georgitsi M, Damoraki G, Polymeros D, Dimitriadis GD, Triantafyllou K Abstract BACKGROUND: NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimolecular cytosol complex that, when activated, contributes to the cleavage of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β to IL-1β. AIMS: To investigate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and controls were stimulated with LPS…

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Autophagy Genes of Host Responds to Disruption of Gut Microbial Community by Antibiotics.

Related Articles Autophagy Genes of Host Responds to Disruption of Gut Microbial Community by Antibiotics. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 May 02;: Authors: Singh SB, Wilson M, Ritz N, Lin HC Abstract BACKGROUND: Defective autophagic machinery, such as that in Crohn’s disease patients homozygous for ATG16L1 risk allele, is associated with alteration of resident gut bacterial communities. However, whether or not host autophagy responds to changes in the resident gut microbial community is not known. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiome (dysbiosis) on autophagy gene…

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Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Related Articles Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 27;: Authors: Meighani A, Hart BR, Bourgi K, Miller N, John A, Ramesh M Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently been shown to be a promising therapy for recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) despite lack of protocol standardization. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) present a particular challenge to CDI therapy as they are reported to have worse clinical outcomes, including higher…

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Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Experimental Murine Colitis via TSP-1-Dependent Activation of Latent TGF-β.

Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Experimental Murine Colitis via TSP-1-Dependent Activation of Latent TGF-β. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 22;: Authors: Takeyama H, Mizushima T, Uemura M, Haraguchi N, Nishimura J, Hata T, Matsuda C, Takemasa I, Ikenaga M, Murata K, Yamamoto H, Doki Y, Mori M Abstract BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been investigated as therapeutic tools for a variety of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of ASCs are not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulatory T cell…

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Immunological Mechanisms of Adsorptive Cytapheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Related Articles Immunological Mechanisms of Adsorptive Cytapheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 21;: Authors: Sáez-González E, Moret I, Alvarez-Sotomayor D, Díaz-Jaime FC, Cerrillo E, Iborra M, Nos P, Beltrán B Abstract Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The study of immunological pathways involved in the onset of IBD is of fundamental importance to identify potential biological markers of disease activity and specific targets for therapy. Removing excess and activated circulating leukocytes with adsorptive cytapheresis has been shown…

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Use of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Concurrent Heart Failure.

Related Articles Use of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Concurrent Heart Failure. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 17;: Authors: Jiang Y, Lin O, Sinha SR Abstract BACKGROUND: Prescribing information for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitors, a mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), instructs cautious use in those with heart failure (HF). However, the limited data behind these warnings are inconclusive and should be weighed against mounting evidence demonstrating worse cardiac outcomes in active IBD. AIMS: To assess whether…

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Medical Therapies for Stricturing Crohn’s Disease: Efficacy and Cross-Sectional Imaging Predictors of Therapeutic Failure.

Related Articles Medical Therapies for Stricturing Crohn’s Disease: Efficacy and Cross-Sectional Imaging Predictors of Therapeutic Failure. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 11;: Authors: Campos C, Perrey A, Lambert C, Pereira B, Goutte M, Dubois A, Goutorbe F, Dapoigny M, Bommelaer G, Hordonneau C, Buisson A Abstract BACKGROUND: Medical therapy efficacy remains controversial in stricturing Crohn’s disease. Cross-sectional imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging, has been suggested as very helpful to guide therapeutic decision making. AIM: To assess efficacy and predictors of therapeutic failure in patients receiving medical treatments for stricturing Crohn’s…

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Hospital-Acquired Conditions Are Associated with Worse Outcomes in Crohn’s Disease-Related Hospitalizations.

Related Articles Hospital-Acquired Conditions Are Associated with Worse Outcomes in Crohn’s Disease-Related Hospitalizations. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 11;: Authors: Obi K, Hinton A, Sobotka L, Levine E, Conwell D, Zhang C Abstract BACKGROUND: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronically relapsing condition that frequently requires hospitalization. In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services selected ten conditions that were deemed healthcare-acquired conditions (HACs). Costs related to HACs are not reimbursed as they are considered to be preventable. AIM: To determine the prevalence and impact of HACs on hospital outcomes…

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Role of MiRNAs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Related Articles Role of MiRNAs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 08;: Authors: Cao B, Zhou X, Ma J, Zhou W, Yang W, Fan D, Hong L Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite improvements in detection, drug treatment and surgery, the pathogenesis of IBD has not been clarified. A number of miRNAs have been found to be involved in the initiation, development and progression of IBD, and they may have the…

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Serum Cyclophilin A Correlates with Increased Tissue MMP-9 in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis, but Not with Crohn’s Disease.

Related Articles Serum Cyclophilin A Correlates with Increased Tissue MMP-9 in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis, but Not with Crohn’s Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Apr 08;: Authors: Piechota-Polanczyk A, Włodarczyk M, Sobolewska-Włodarczyk A, Jonakowski M, Pilarczyk A, Stec-Michalska K, Wiśniewska-Jarosińska M, Fichna J Abstract BACKGROUND: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is an immunomodulatory protein, high expression of which correlates with poor outcome of patients with inflammatory diseases. However, its role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been studied. AIM: This study analyzes the correlation between cyclophilin A, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and…

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