Strategies for detecting colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Strategies for detecting colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 18;9:CD000279 Authors: Bye WA, Nguyen TM, Parker CE, Jairath V, East JE Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn’s disease have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population. This review assessed the evidence that endoscopic surveillance may prolong life by allowing earlier detection of CRC or its pre-cursor lesion, dysplasia, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cancer surveillance…

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Placebo response and remission rates in randomised trials of induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis.

Placebo response and remission rates in randomised trials of induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 08;9:CD011572 Authors: Jairath V, Zou GY, Parker CE, MacDonald JK, AlAmeel T, Al Beshir M, Almadi MA, Al-Taweel T, Atkinson NS, Biswas S, Chapman T, Dulai PS, Glaire MA, Hoekman DR, Koutsoumpas A, Minas E, Mosli MH, Samaan M, Khanna R, Travis S, D’Haens G, Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG Abstract BACKGROUND: It is important to minimize placebo rates in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to efficiently detect treatment differences…

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Histologic scoring indices for evaluation of disease activity in Crohn’s disease.

Histologic scoring indices for evaluation of disease activity in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 21;7:CD012351 Authors: Novak G, Parker CE, Pai RK, MacDonald JK, Feagan BG, Sandborn WJ, D’Haens G, Jairath V, Khanna R Abstract BACKGROUND: Histologic assessment of mucosal disease activity has been increasingly used in clinical trials of treatment for Crohn’s disease. However, the operating properties of the currently existing histologic scoring indices remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of available histologic disease activity indices in…

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Interventions for treating lymphocytic colitis.

Related Articles Interventions for treating lymphocytic colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 13;7:CD006096 Authors: Chande N, Al Yatama N, Bhanji T, Nguyen TM, McDonald JW, MacDonald JK Abstract BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic colitis is a cause of chronic diarrhea. It is a subtype of microscopic colitis characterized by chronic, watery, non-bloody diarrhea and normal endoscopic and radiologic findings. The etiology of this disorder is unknown.Therapy is based mainly on case series and uncontrolled trials, or by extrapolation of data for treating collagenous colitis, a related disorder. This review is an update…

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Histologic scoring indices for evaluation of disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

Related Articles Histologic scoring indices for evaluation of disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 25;5:CD011256 Authors: Mosli MH, Parker CE, Nelson SA, Baker KA, MacDonald JK, Zou GY, Feagan BG, Khanna R, Levesque BG, Jairath V Abstract BACKGROUND: Disease activity can be determined using clinical, endoscopic or histologic criteria in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Persistent disease activity is associated with poor outcomes. Histologic disease activity has been shown to be associated with relapse, colectomy and colorectal cancer. The ability to objectively evaluate microscopic disease…

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Anti-IL-12/23p40 antibodies for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease.

Anti-IL-12/23p40 antibodies for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 25;11:CD007572 Authors: MacDonald JK, Nguyen TM, Khanna R, Timmer A Abstract BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab (CNTO 1275) and briakinumab (ABT-874) are monoclonal antibodies that target the standard p40 subunit of the cytokines interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 (IL-12/23p40), which are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to assess the efficacy and safety of anti-IL-12/23p40 antibodies for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from inception…

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Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease.

Related Articles Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 26;10:CD000545 Authors: Chande N, Townsend CM, Parker CE, MacDonald JK Abstract BACKGROUND: The results from controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of active Crohn’s disease have been conflicting and controversial. An updated meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of these drugs for the induction of remission in active Crohn’s disease. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of azathioprine and…

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Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children.

Related Articles Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD004407 Authors: Demicheli V, Jefferson T, Rivetti A, Price D Abstract BACKGROUND: Public debate over the safety of the trivalent measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and the resultant drop in vaccination rates in several countries, persists despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence of effectiveness and unintended effects associated with MMR. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled…

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Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children.

Related Articles Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15;(2):CD004407 Authors: Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, Di Pietrantonj C Abstract BACKGROUND: Mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) are serious diseases that can lead to potentially fatal illness, disability and death. However, public debate over the safety of the trivalent MMR vaccine and the resultant drop in vaccination coverage in several countries persists, despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects associated with the MMR vaccine…

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The impact of biological interventions for ulcerative colitis on health-related quality of life.

Related Articles The impact of biological interventions for ulcerative colitis on health-related quality of life. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 22;(9):CD008655 Authors: LeBlanc K, Mosli MH, Parker CE, MacDonald JK Abstract BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon that has a relapsing-remitting course. Health related quality of life (HRQL) is significantly lower in patients with UC than the general population due to the negative effects of the disease on physical, psychological and social well-being. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating medical interventions for UC have…

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