Metronidazole or Rifaximin for Treatment of Clostridium difficile in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Metronidazole or Rifaximin for Treatment of Clostridium difficile in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Oct 27;: Authors: Gawronska A, Banasiuk M, Lachowicz D, Pituch H, Albrecht P, Banaszkiewicz A Abstract BACKGROUND: Interestingly, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) worsens the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment of CDI in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-blind trial. Children with flare of IBD and CDI were randomly assigned to receive metronidazole…

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Antibiotic use and new-onset inflammatory bowel disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based case-control study.

Antibiotic use and new-onset inflammatory bowel disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based case-control study. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Sep 28;: Authors: Aniwan S, Tremaine WJ, Raffals LE, Kane SV, Loftus EV Abstract Background and Aims: Several studies have suggested significant associations between environmental factors and the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data supporting the role of antibiotics are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and new-onset IBD. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study using the Rochester Epidemiology…

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Autophagy Genes of Host Responds to Disruption of Gut Microbial Community by Antibiotics.

Related Articles Autophagy Genes of Host Responds to Disruption of Gut Microbial Community by Antibiotics. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 May 02;: Authors: Singh SB, Wilson M, Ritz N, Lin HC Abstract BACKGROUND: Defective autophagic machinery, such as that in Crohn’s disease patients homozygous for ATG16L1 risk allele, is associated with alteration of resident gut bacterial communities. However, whether or not host autophagy responds to changes in the resident gut microbial community is not known. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiome (dysbiosis) on autophagy gene…

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Maternal Infections That Would Warrant Antibiotic Use Antepartum or Peripartum Are Not a Risk Factor for the Development of IBD: A Population-Based Analysis.

Maternal Infections That Would Warrant Antibiotic Use Antepartum or Peripartum Are Not a Risk Factor for the Development of IBD: A Population-Based Analysis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Feb 10;: Authors: Bernstein CN, Burchill C, Targownik LE, Singh H, Ghia JE, Roos LL Abstract BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether maternal antenatal or perinatal infections (and thereby use of antibiotics) increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in their offspring. METHODS: The University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database contains records of all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 to…

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Changes in Intestinal Microbiota Following Combination Therapy with Fecal Microbial Transplantation and Antibiotics for Ulcerative Colitis.

Changes in Intestinal Microbiota Following Combination Therapy with Fecal Microbial Transplantation and Antibiotics for Ulcerative Colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Nov 22; Authors: Ishikawa D, Sasaki T, Osada T, Kuwahara-Arai K, Haga K, Shibuya T, Hiramatsu K, Watanabe S Abstract BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential therapeutic approach to restore normal intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is associated with dysbiosis; however, treatment efficacy remains unclear. Hence, we studied the impact of antibiotic pretreatment with amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole (AFM therapy) and FMT versus AFM…

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Germ-free and Antibiotic-treated Mice are Highly Susceptible to Epithelial Injury in DSS Colitis.

Related Articles Germ-free and Antibiotic-treated Mice are Highly Susceptible to Epithelial Injury in DSS Colitis. J Crohns Colitis. 2016 Nov;10(11):1324-1335 Authors: Hernández-Chirlaque C, Aranda CJ, Ocón B, Capitán-Cañadas F, Ortega-González M, Carrero JJ, Suárez MD, Zarzuelo A, Sánchez de Medina F, Martínez-Augustin O Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal microbiota is required to maintain immune homeostasis and intestinal barrier function. At the same time, intraluminal bacteria are considered to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease and are required for colitis induction in animal models, with the possible exception of dextran sulphate…

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Double blind, placebo controlled trial of metronidazole in Crohn’s disease.

Related Articles Double blind, placebo controlled trial of metronidazole in Crohn’s disease. Gut. 1991 Sep;32(9):1071-5 Authors: Sutherland L, Singleton J, Sessions J, Hanauer S, Krawitt E, Rankin G, Summers R, Mekhjian H, Greenberger N, Kelly M Abstract A double blind study compared the efficacy of metronidazole in two doses (20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg) with placebo in patients with Crohn’s disease. One hundred and five patients participated but only 56 completed the 16 week study -21 were withdrawn for deterioration of symptoms, 17 for adverse experiences, and 11 for protocol violation….

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Treatment of Crohn’s disease with fusidic acid: an antibiotic with immunosuppressive properties similar to cyclosporin.

Related Articles Treatment of Crohn’s disease with fusidic acid: an antibiotic with immunosuppressive properties similar to cyclosporin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1992 Aug;6(4):495-502 Authors: Langholz E, Brynskov J, Bendtzen K, Vilien M, Binder V Abstract Fusidic acid is an antibiotic with T-cell specific immunosuppressive effects similar to those of cyclosporin. Because of the need for the development of new treatments for Crohn’s disease, a pilot study was undertaken to estimate the pharmacodynamics and tolerability of fusidic acid treatment in chronic active, therapy-resistant patients. Eight Crohn’s disease patients were included. Fusidic acid…

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Is there a role for antibiotics as primary therapy in Crohn’s ileitis?

Related Articles Is there a role for antibiotics as primary therapy in Crohn’s ileitis? J Clin Gastroenterol. 1993 Oct;17(3):235-7 Authors: Peppercorn MA Abstract Although their use has been deemed plausible by previous investigators, the role of antibiotics as primary therapy in active Crohn’s ileitis is still unclear. Here we detail the response of four patients with active ileitis to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Each patient had a dramatic improvement in abdominal pain and diarrhea coincident with the institution of ciprofloxacin, despite the absence of any obvious enteric infection. It is…

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