Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 Jul 02;: Authors: Troelsen FS, Jick S Abstract BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes serious morbidity and disability, and the incidence is increasing. The disease etiology is not well understood, though inflammatory reactions after antibiotic exposure may be associated with development of IBD. We investigated the association between IBD and prior antibiotic use. METHODS: We conducted this case-control study among individuals in the United…

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Ustekinumab Is Effective for the Treatment of Chronic Antibiotic-Refractory Pouchitis.

Related Articles Ustekinumab Is Effective for the Treatment of Chronic Antibiotic-Refractory Pouchitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Jun 11;: Authors: Ollech JE, Rubin DT, Glick L, Weisshof R, El Jurdi K, Israel A, Krugliak Cleveland N, Hyman N, Sakuraba A, Pekow J, Cohen RD, Dalal SR Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (CARP) occurs in up to 15% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of ustekinumab in the treatment of CARP. METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center study of UC…

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Low-dose metronidazole is associated with a decreased rate of endoscopic recurrence of Crohn’s disease after ileal resection: a retrospective cohort study.

Related Articles Low-dose metronidazole is associated with a decreased rate of endoscopic recurrence of Crohn’s disease after ileal resection: a retrospective cohort study. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Feb 27;: Authors: Glick LR, Sossenheimer PH, Ollech JE, Cohen RD, Hyman NH, Hurst RD, Rubin DT Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recurrence of Crohn’s disease after surgical resection and primary anastomosis is an important clinical challenge. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefit of imidazole antibiotics, but have been limited by adverse events and medication intolerance. We evaluated whether administration of low-dose metronidazole (250mg…

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Antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease.

Related Articles Antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 07;2:CD012730 Authors: Townsend CM, Parker CE, MacDonald JK, Nguyen TM, Jairath V, Feagan BG, Khanna R Abstract BACKGROUND: Several antibiotics have been evaluated in Crohn’s disease (CD), however randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in CD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register and Clinicaltrials.gov database from inception to…

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Efficacy of Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Efficacy of Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 Feb 04;: Authors: Breton J, Kastl A, Hoffmann N, Rogers R, Grossman AB, Mamula P, Kelsen JR, Baldassano RN, Albenberg L Abstract Background: Recent studies have shown that oral combination antibiotics may improve disease course in refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we describe the use of combination oral antibiotics as salvage therapy in refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s colitis, and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) at a large pediatric IBD center. Methods: Clinical response, disease activity indices,…

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Antibiotics Potentiate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Infection and Expansion.

Related Articles Antibiotics Potentiate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Infection and Expansion. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Nov 29;: Authors: Oberc AM, Fiebig-Comyn AA, Tsai CN, Elhenawy W, Coombes BK Abstract Background: Crohn’s disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease with a complex etiology. Paradoxically, CD is associated with the use of antibiotics and with an increased abundance of an unusual phenotypic group of Escherichia coli known as adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC). However, the impact of antibiotics on AIEC infection has not been well studied in controlled models of infection. Methods: We infected…

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The Microbial Composition of Bacteroidetes Species in Ulcerative Colitis Is Effectively Improved by Combination Therapy With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Antibiotics.

The Microbial Composition of Bacteroidetes Species in Ulcerative Colitis Is Effectively Improved by Combination Therapy With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Antibiotics. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Aug 14;: Authors: Ishikawa D, Sasaki T, Takahashi M, Kuwahara-Arai K, Haga K, Ito S, Okahara K, Nakajima A, Shibuya T, Osada T, Hiramatsu K, Watanabe S, Nagahara A Abstract Background: We previously reported that fresh fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) after triple-antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole [AFM]; A-FMT) synergistically contributed to the recovery of phylum Bacteroidetes composition associated with the endoscopic severity and treatment…

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Antibiotics in IBD: Still a Role in the Biological Era?

Antibiotics in IBD: Still a Role in the Biological Era? Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 May 02;: Authors: Ledder O, Turner D Abstract Despite compelling evidence pointing to a critical role of gut microflora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, the role of antibiotics in clinical practice remains limited, largely due to heterogeneous trials with often conflicting evidence. In this review, we revisit previous randomized controlled trials and high-quality uncontrolled studies in an effort to better elucidate the role of antibiotics in contemporary treatment algorithms. The most established role of antibiotics…

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Azithromycin and metronidazole versus metronidazole-based therapy for the induction of remission in mild to moderate paediatric Crohn’s disease : a randomised controlled trial.

Azithromycin and metronidazole versus metronidazole-based therapy for the induction of remission in mild to moderate paediatric Crohn’s disease : a randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2018 Feb 02;: Authors: Levine A, Kori M, Kierkus J, Sigall Boneh R, Sladek M, Escher JC, Wine E, Yerushalmi B, Amil Dias J, Shaoul R, Veereman Wauters G, Boaz M, Abitbol G, Bousvaros A, Turner D Abstract OBJECTIVE: Crohn’s disease (CD) pathogenesis associated with dysbiosis and presence of pathobionts in the lumen, intracellular compartments and epithelial biofilms. Azithromycin is active in all three compartments. Our…

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